اعتبارسنجی پرسشنامه انگیزه یادگیری زبان فارسی به عنوان زبان دوم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری زبان شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 نویسنده‌ی مسئول، دانشیار گروه زبان‏شناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی زبانان، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)

4 استادیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فارسی و گروه زبانشناسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.30479/jtpsol.2020.9935.1421

چکیده

با تغییرات در حوزه­ی یادگیری زبان دوم، علاقه­ی روزافزون به انجام تحقیقات انگیزشی مرتبط با کلاس­های زبان دوم و خارجی، گسترش یافته است. با این حال، تاکنون پژوهش علمی­ای درخصوص بررسی عوامل تأثیرگذار بر انگیزه‌ی یادگیری زبان فارسی (به عنوان زبان خارجی/ دوم) در میان فارسی­آموزان غیرایرانی انجام نشده است. در این پژوهش، نخست بر اساس مدل سیستم­های خودانگیزشی دورنی (2005)، و پژوهش­های گاردنر و لامبرت (1972)، کلمنت (1980)، تاگوچی (2010)، پاپی (2010)، و ماگید (2011)، پیرامون انگیزش زبان­آموزان، پرسش­نامه­ای 16 مؤلفه­ای شامل 92 گویه برای فارسی­آموزان آماده­سازی گردید. سپس، 300 فارسی­آموز زن و مرد، با ملیت­های مختلف (و در بازه‌ی سنی 18-50 سال) از مراکز آموزش زبان فارسی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، دانشگاه بین­المللی امام خمینی (ره) در قزوین، و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران به سؤالات پرسشنامه پاسخ دادند. در نهایت، روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه با استفاده از نرم افزار پی‌ال‌اس مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به منظور بررسی پایایی از سه معیار ضریب آلفای کرونباخ، ضریب پایایی ترکیبی و ضرایب بارهای عاملی استفاده شد و نتایح نشان داد که همه‌ی سازه­ها از پایایی قابل قبولی برخوردار هستتد. همچنین روایی همگرایی قابل قبولی برای پرسشنامه­ به دست آمد. با روش فورنل و لارکر روایی واگرایی پرسشنامه نیز مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. از آماره‌ی تی نیز به عنوان معیاری جهت بررسی معنی­داری سؤالات مربوط به هر سازه استفاده شد. و از آنجایی که این مقدار برای تمامی سؤالات آماره‌ی تی بیش از 1.96 می­باشد، نشان از مطلوب بودن سؤالات و در مجموع برازش مناسب مدل ساختاری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Validation of Persian Language Learning Motivation Questionnaireas a Second Language

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sharareh Khaleghizadeh 1
  • mohammad reza pahlavannezhad 2
  • Amirreza Vakilifard 3
  • Atiyeh Kamyabi Gol 4
1 PhD in Linguistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Corresponding author, Associate Professor, Department of Linguistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Teaching Persian language to non-Iranian students, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Persian Language & Literature and Department of Linguistics Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
With changes in the field of learning a second language, interest in conducting motivational research related to the second and Foreign language has expanded. However, so far, there has not been a complete scientific research on the motivation of learning Persian (as foreign / second language) among non-Iranian students in Persian. In this research, first on the base of model of Dorniey motivational self-systems (2005) and Gardner and Lambert's (1972), Clement (1980), Taguchi (2010), Papi (2009) and Magid (2011) researches on Students' motivation, a questionnaire consisting of 16 components including 91 items was designed for Persian students. The statistical sample of this study was 300 Persian-learners of male and female from Persian language teaching centers in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Imam Khomeini International University in Qazvin, and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were evaluated using PLS software. the results showed that All of the constructs were of an acceptable reliability. Also, acceptable convergent validity was observed for the questionnaire. The divergent validity of the questionnaire was also confirmed. the relationship between the questionnaires constructs and the significance of the questions related to each structure was considered to be desirable and acceptable, and hence, the model has the proper fit and the power of predictive desirability. The t-test was used as a criterion for evaluating the questions of each construct. And since for all the statistical questions T is more than 1.96, it indicates the desirability of questions. 
Extended Abstract:
With changes in the field of second language learning, there is a growing interest in motivational research related to second and foreign language classes. Despite the importance of motivation in language learning, no scientific research has been conducted to investigate the factors affecting Persian language learning motivation (as a foreign / second language) among non-Iranian Persian learners. In this study, first on the base of Dornyei's (2005) self-motivational systems model, and Gardner and Lambert's (1972), Clement's (1980), Taguchi's (2010), Papi's (2010), and Magid's (2011) studies aroundMotivation of the learners, a 16-factor questionnaire including 92 items was prepared for the students. The 16 factors or constructs that were assessed in the Persian Learning Motivation Questionnaire are: Criterion measure, Ideal L2 self, Ought-to L2 self, Second language learning experience, Family influence, Instrumentality-promotion, Instrumentality-prevention, Attitudes to L2 community, Cultural interest, Integrativeness, Linguistic self-confidence, Travel orientation, Fear of assimilation, Persian anxiety, Ethnocentrism, Interest in the Persian language. In other words, the main framework of this questionnaire was designed based on Dornyei model (Dörnyei, 2005), which is one of the newest research achievements in second language motivation and has theoretically strong support, and thus provides strong support for the tool designed in the present study. Then, in order to validate the questionnaire, 300 Farsi learners from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Imam Khomeini International University in Qazvin, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were asked to answer the designed questionnaire. The sampling method in this study was also randomized.These Farsi students of different nationalities, ranged in age from 50 to 18 years and were studying Persian in the upper intermediate and advanced levels in academic years of 2017-2018.
Finally, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were evaluated using PLS software. In fact, since the Cronbach's alpha criterion is a traditional criterion for determining the reliability of constructs, the PLS method employs a more modern criterion than the Cronbach's alpha, called composite reliability. This criterion was introduced by Wertz et al. And its superiority to Cronbach's alpha is that the reliability of the factors is calculated not by absolute terms but by the correlation of their items with each other. As a result, in the PLS method, both criteria are used to better measure the reliability of questionnaire. If the composite reliability value for each construct is above 0.7, it indicates a good internal consistency for the measured models and a value below 0.6 indicates no reliability. The results of questionnaire constructs indicate that Cronbach's alpha coefficient and reliability values (more than 0.7) for all 16 model constructs. Also, in the present study, factor loadings were investigated with the use of PLS statistical software. The factor loadings of the questions for each of the research variables are more than 0.3, indicating the acceptable reliability of the research constructs. Convergent validity that correlated a construct with its indices was also evaluated and in all 16 constructs this value was in the acceptable range (more than 0.5). The criterion for measuring the divergent validity of the research variables is the use of Fornell and Larcker (1981) method. This criterion is the degree of relationship of a construct with its indices or items, compared to the relation of that construct with other constructs, so that the acceptable divergence validity of a model implies that a construct in the model interacts more with its indices than with other constructs. In the PLS this is done by a matrix. This matrix contains the absolute magnitude of the correlation coefficients between research constructs (bottom triangle coefficients) and the square root of average variance extracted for each construct (over the original diameter). Since the values on the original diameter are larger than the lower values of the matrix triangle, the validity of the model discriminant is confirmed by the Fornell and Larcker method.Also, using the t-statistic of each of the questions attributed to the research variables, the suitability of the questions and overall fit of the structural model were evaluated. If the t-coefficient is less than 1.96, that question should be omitted because that question is weak in explaining its own variable and its presence in the model increases the measurement error of subsequent calculations. In the present questionnaire, the coefficients of t for all questions are more than 1.96, indicating that the questions are desirable and overall fit to the structural model.Finally, we hope that this research will be a guide for future research to examine the relationship between second language learning motivation and other variables related to second language learning. Also, by identifying the Persian motivation of the students and the factors affecting their motivation in the educational centers and Persian language classes, we can plan how the teaching and the use of educational resources can be related to the type of learners’ motivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Motivation Questionnaire
  • reliability
  • Validity
  • non-Iranian learners of Persian
  • learning Persian as a second language
داوری، آرش و رضازاده، علی. (1393). مدل­سازی معادلات ساختاری با نرم افزار PLS، تهران: سازمان انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی.

ﻗﺮﺑﺎن دوردی ﻧﮋاد، فرهاد. (1394). ﺳﺎﺧﺖ، رواﺳﺎزی و ﭘﺎﻳﺎﺳﺎزی ﭘﺮﺳﺶﻧﺎﻣه‌ی اﻧﮕﻴﺰش و ﻧﮕﺮشﻳﺎدﮔﻴﺮی زﺑﺎن اﻧﮕﻠﻴﺴﻲ. دو ماهنامه جستارهای زبانی، د6 ، ش 2(پیاپی 23)، خرداد و تیر 1394. 107-128.

صدیقی­فر، زهره و خالقی زاده، شراره. (1395). جهت­گیری­های انگیزشی و پیشرفت تحصیلی فارسی­آموزان عربی­زبان، پژوهش­نامه­ی آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی­زبانان، سال پنجم، شماره­­ی دوم (پیاپی 12)، پاییز و زمستان 1395.

قادری، بهاره. (1391). بررسی عامل انگیزه و تأثیر آن در پیشرفت زبان آموزان غیرفارسی زبان، )پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد(، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران.

 

References:

Akram, M.( 2007). Attitude and motivation in English language learning: A study of female learners of Southern Punjab. Language in India. 7, 1-23.

Alshahrani, A. A. S. (2016). L2 motivational self system among Arab EFL learners: Saudi prespective. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature, 5(5), 145-152.

Apple, M., Falout, J., & Hill, G. A.( September 2012). The L2 motivational Selves of Technical College students. Paper presented at International Symposium on Advances in Technology Education (ISATE), Kitakyushu Japan.

Busse, V. (2013). An exploration of motivation and self-beliefs of first year students of German. System, 41, 379-398.

Clément, R., Gardner, R. C., & Smythe, P. C. (1977), Motivational variables in second language acquisition: A study of francophone learning English. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 9, 123-133.

Clément, R. (1980), Ethnicity, contact and communicative competence in a second language. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson, & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social Psychological Perspectives (pp. 147–154). Oxford: Pergamon.

Clément, R. & Kruidenier, B. G. (1983). Orientations in second language acquisition: The effects of ethnicity, milieu and target language on their emergence. Language Learning. 41, 469-512.

Clément, R. & Kruidenier, B. G.(1985), Aptitude, attitude and motivation in second language proficiency: A test of Clement's model. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 4, 21-37.

Davari, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling with PLS. Jahade Daneshgahi, Tehran, Iran [in Persian].

Dörnyei, Z. (1990), Conceptualizing motivation in foreign language learning. Language Learning, 40, 46–78.

Dörnyei, Z. (1994a), Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom. Modern Language Journal, 40, 46-78.

Dörnyei, Z. (1994b), Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge! Modern Language Journal, 78(4), 515–523.

Dörnyei, Z. (2005), The psychology of the language learner: Individual Differences in second language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Dörnyei, Z., Csizér, K., & Nemeth, N. (2006), Motivation, language, attitudes and globalisation: A Hungarian perspective. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters LTD.

Dörnyei, Z. (2009), The L2 motivational self-system. In Z. Dörnyei& E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (pp. 9-42). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition, Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266–272.

Gardner, R. C. & Lambert, W. E. (1972). Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House.

Gardner, R. C. & Smythe, P. C. (1975), Motivation and second-language acquisition. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 31, 218–230.

Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. F. (1994). On motivation, research agendas, and theoretical frameworks, Modern Language Journal, 78 (3), 359–368.

Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: The socio-educational model. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Ghaderi, B. (2012). Effect of Motivation on success of Persian language learners, (Master dissertation), Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran. [In Persian]

Ghorban Dordi-nezhad, F. (2015). Construction, Validation and Reliability of the Foreign Language Attitude and Motivation Questionnaire,Language Related Research, 6 (2), 107-128. [In Persian]

Higgins, E. T. (1996), Knowledge activation: Accessibility, applicability, and salience. In Higgins ET, Kruglanski AW. (Eds). Social Psychology: Handbook of basic principles, (pp. 133-168), Guilford: New York.

Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self–discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.

Keller, J.M. (1983) Motivational design of instruction. In Reigelruth, C.M. (Eds.), Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status. (pp. 383– 434) Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kormos, J. & Csizer, K. (2008). Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a FL: attitudes, selves, and motivated learning behavior. Language Learning, 58 (2), 327-355.

Lamb, M. (2013). 'Your mum and dad can't teach you!': constraints on agency among rural learners of English in developing world. Journal of Multilingual andMulticultural Development, 34(1), 14-29.

Lockwood, P., Marshall, T. C., & Sadler, P. (2005). Promoting success or preventing failure: Cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(3), 379-392.

MacIntyre, P. D. (1999). Language anxiety: A review of the research for language teachers. In D. J. Young (Ed.), Affect in foreign language and second language learning (pp. 24-45). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Magid, M. (2011). A validation and application of the L2 motivational self-system among Chinese learners of English. (doctoral dissertation). University of Nottingham.

Mansoor, S. (2003). The Status and Role of Regional Languages in Higher Education in Pakistan. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25(4), 333-353.

Markus, H. & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible Selves. American Psychologist, 41(9), 954– 969.

Noels, K. A., Clément, R. & Pelletier, L. G. (1999), Perceptions of teachers ‘communicative style and students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern LanguageJournal, 83, 23–34.

Noels, K. A., Clement, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (2001), Intrinsic, extrinsic, and integrative orientations of French Canadian learners of English. Canadian Modern Language Review, 57, 424-444.

Noels, K. A., Pelletier, L. G., Clément, R., & Vallerand, R.J. (2003). Why are you learning a second language? Motivation orientation and self-determination theory. Language Learning, 50, 57-85.

Oxford, R. L., & Shearin, J. (1994), Language learning motivation: Expanding the theoretical framework. Modern Language Journal, 78(1), 12–28.

Papi, M. (2010). The L2 motivational self system, L2 anxiety, and motivated behavior: A structural equation modeling approach, System (38), 467-479

Ryan, S. (2008). The Ideal L2 Selves of Japanese Learners of English. (doctoral dissertation), University of Nottingham.

Sediqifar, Z. & Khaleghizadeh, Sh. (2016). Motivational Orientations and academic achievement among Arabic speaking learners of Persian. Journal of Teaching Persian Language to Non-Persian Speakers, 5th year, second issue (12th period), autumn and winter of 2016 [in Persian].

Taguchi. T. (2010). The L2 motivational self-system among Japanese university learners of English: a mixed methods approach , (doctoral dissertation), University of Nottingham.

Tremblay, P. & Gardner, R. C. (1995), Expanding the motivation construct in language learning. Modern Language Journal, 79, 505–518.

Xie, Y. (2011). Representations of L2 Motivational Self System With Beginning Chinese language Learners at College Level in the United States: Heritage and Nonheritage Language Learners (doctoral dissertation), Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA

Yashima, T. (2002), Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. Modern Language Journal, 86, 54–66.