واکاوی دستوری نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان چینی سطح فرومیانی (A2): تحلیلی بر پایه‌ی دستور مقوله و میزان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده ‏ی مسئول، استادیار گروه آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی‌زبانان، دانشگاه بین‏ المللی امام خمینی(ره)

2 دانش‏ آموخته ‏ی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی‌زبانان، دانشگاه بین‏ المللی امام خمینی(ره)

10.30479/jtpsol.2020.6294.1488

چکیده

نظریه‌ی زبان‌شناسی و پیکره‌ی زبانی لازم و ملزوم یکدیگرند؛ بدین معنا که نظریات زبان‌شناسی با مطالعه‌ی پیکره‌های زبانی محک زده می‌شوند و میزان اعتبارشان بر اساس داده‌های واقعی، سنجیده می‌شود؛ از سوی دیگر، پیکره‌ی‌زبانی، زمینه‌ی اصلاح یا تغییر نظریات زبان‌شناسی موجود و یا طرح نظریات جدید را فراهم می‌آورد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف برداشتن گامی کوچک در راستای ایجاد پیکره‌ی تولیدی فارسی‌آموزانِ غیرایرانی و نیز آشنایی بیشتر با ویژگی‌های دستوری نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان انجام شده‌ است. پرسش‌ اصلی، چگونگی ویژگی ساختمان دستوری نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان چینیِ سطح فرومیانی (A2) و پرسش فرعی میزان کارآمدی دستور مقوله و میزان در توصیف ساختمان دستوری زبان میانی فارسی‌آموزان است. پژوهش از نوع توصیفی - تحلیلی است که با استفاده از پیکره‌ای زبانی برگرفته از آزمون نگارش پایان دوره‌ی عمومی 90 فارسی‌آموز چینیِ مرکز آموزش زبان فارسی دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره) و بر پایه‌ی نظریه‌ی زبانی مقوله و میزان انجام شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که ساختار جمله در نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان چینیِ سطح فرومیانی، بیشتر از نوع هسته‌ای، مرتبه‌بندی شده و مهین است. گروه فعلی در هر جمله به طور میانگین مشخصاتی همچون خودایستاییِ شخصی، جهت معلوم و قطب مثبت دارد و گروه فعلی خودایستای غیرشخصی و جهت مجهول ملاحظه نمی‌شود. مشخصه‌ی بارز گروه اسمی نیز بدون وابسته یا تک وابسته بودن آن است؛ ولی گروه قیدی تقریباً به نسبت یکسان از نوع با علامت و بدون علامت در نوشتار دیده می‌شود. این پژوهش کارایی دستور مقوله و میزان در توصیف دقیق نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان چینی را به نوعی تأیید می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Grammatical Analysis of chinese Persian learner's Writings (A2): a Study Based on Category and Scale Grammar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Bagher Mirzaei Hesarian 1
  • Hamide Pooladsotoon 2
1 Corresponding author, Assistant Professor of Teaching Persian Language to speakers of other languages Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
2 MA Graduate in Teaching Persian Language to speakers of other languages Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Linguistic theory and corpus linguistic are necessary for each other; That is, linguistic theories are tested by studying corpus linguistic and their validity is measured based on real data; On the other hand, the corpus linguistic provides the basis for modifying or changing existing linguistic theories or proposing new theories. The aim of study is to take a small step towards creating a productive Persian learners corpus and to become more familiar with the grammatical features of Persian learner’s writing. The main question is how are the grammatical structure of Chinese learners of Persian’s writing, level (A2) and the sub-question is the efficiency of the Category and Scale grammar(CSG) in describing the grammatical structure of the interlanguage of Chinese learners of Persian. The research is of descriptive-analytical type and is done based on the category and scale grammar using a corpus taken from the final writing test of Persian language general course in Persian language Training Center of IKIU, in which 90 Chinese learners of Persian(CLP) participated. Findings indicate the core, ranked and major sentence frequency. The verbal group has characteristics such as finite personal and active voice on average and there is almost no trace of finite impersonal and passive voice. The nominal group has no or one dependent. The adverbial group is approximately the same proportion of marked and unmarked. Research has also proven the effectiveness of CSG in accurately describing writing of CLP's writing.
Extended Abstract:
Linguistic theory and corpus are necessary for each other; That is, linguistic theories are tested by studying corpus linguistic and their validity is measured based on authentic data; On the other hand, the corpus linguistic provides the basis for modifying or changing existing linguistic theories or proposing new theories.
This study aims is to take a small step towards creating a productive Persian learners corpora and to become more familiar with the grammatical features of Persian learner’s writing. The main question is how are the grammatical structure of Chinese learners of Persian’s writing, level (A2) and the sub-question is the efficiency of the Category and Scale grammar (CSG) in describing the grammatical structure of the interlanguage of Chinese Persian learners (CPL).
The research is based on the book describing the grammatical structure of Persian language based on the theory of Category and Scale grammar (CSG). In the CSG, four categories have been discussed. These four categories are "unit", "structure", "class" and "system". "Unit" and “structure" belong to the chain axis, which represents the sequence of the constituent or elements of language over time, and "class" and "system" belong to the paradigmatic axis, which represents a variety of possibilities at each point in the speech chain for the speaker to choose from.
The corpus of the research is taken from the final writing test of the General Persian language Course (GPLC) of Persian Language Teaching Center (PLC) at Imam Khomeini International University (IKIU), which was held in the winter of 2016. 90 Chinese Persian learners participated in the mentioned test; hence, a total of 90 test sheets were used as raw data. The test consists of two parts: In the first part, four pictures, marked with numbers one to four, showing a short story and the students were asked to write story of the pictures with at least 10 lines including 10 words. In the second part, they were asked to choose one of the two given topics and write a text of at least 10 to 12 lines of 10 words. In one of the suggested topics, they were asked to write a text about one of their travels so far: What did they do before the trip? What items did they take with them? What places did they visit? In the second one, they were asked to write a letter to their Iranian teacher and explain their country in terms of climate, population, culture, civilization, etc.; therefore, each writing test sheet contained two written texts: one text related to the narration of the given images and the other text about a personal trip or a letter to an Iranian teacher. Given the minimum of 100 words for each text, it can be concluded that the corpora contained 90 texts about the visual story and 90 texts about one of the two proposed topics and a total of 180 texts. If we consider at least 100 words in each text, the corpus contains approximately 18,000 words.
The CPLs were students who participated in the GPLC of PLTC at IKIU for 16 weeks and 20 hours per week for the four skills of listening, reading, speaking and writing skills. So, they participated in a total of 320 training hours in face-to-face classes. Considering the quality and quantity of the educational program and the individual characteristics of CPL, the GPLC can be considered equivalent to the intermediate or pre-intermediate level (A2) in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL).
To prepare the corpora, the writing sheets of CPLs were first typed in the Word software. Attempts were made to type as much as possible what the CPLs had written in their composition. Then, the grammatical tagging of the typed content was done within the framework of CSG. At this stage, 26 grammatical tags such as number and types of sentences (core and cluster sentences), number and types of clauses (core, dependent, ranked, rank shifted, major, minor, finite and non-finite clauses), number and types of groups (verbal, nominal and adverbial groups), The number and types of information related to the current group (finite, voice and polarity), the number and types of information related to the nominal group (complement, subject and nominal dependents) and the number and types of information related to the adverbial group (unmarked and marked) were identified and counted and the data of each sheet were recorded in a table that was prepared for this purpose.
Attempts have been made during the research to analyze the components of the CPL’s compositions without applying language corrections. Since the dot is intended as the boundary of the end of one sentence and the beginning of another sentence. The authors punctuated the compositions and amended or supplemented as required; then, the sentences has been identified and separated. The rank shifted clause components were identified and calculated as the constituent elements of the clause (verbal group, nominal group and adverbial group). In order to count the verbal groups, in addition to the verbal groups in the clause with predication (major clause), the clause without predication (minor clause), finite and non-finite rank shifted clauses were also calculated as the clauses with the verbal groups. In the analysis of nominal groups, only one nominal group is considered; in other words, the nominal groups within the adverbial groups were not analyzed separately.
Findings indicated the core, ranked and major sentence frequency. The verbal group had characteristics such as finite personal and active voice on average and there was almost no trace of finite impersonal and passive voice. The nominal group had no or one dependent. The adverbial group had approximately the same proportion of marked and unmarked. The study proves the effectiveness of CSG in accurately describing writing of CLP's writing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • grammatical Analysis
  • Chinese Persian learners
  • category and scale grammar
  • writing
  • level A2
باطنی، محمد رضا. (1392). توصیف ساختمان دستوری زبان فارسی. چاپ سی‌ام، تهران، انتشارات امیر کبیر.

بدری، سجاد؛ شقاقی، ویدا و مدرسی قوامی، گلناز. (1395). بررسی عوامل انسجام دستوری در متون نوشتاری فارسی‌آموزان ترکی‌زبان (پایان‌نامه‌ی کارشناسی ارشد). دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

رضاپور، ابراهیم؛ احمد یوسفی، فاطمه. (1397). فرآیند یادگیری گروه‌های نحوی در بندهای زبان فارسی در نوشتار فارسی‌آموزان خارجی (پایان‌نامه‌ی کارشناسی ارشد). دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

صحرایی، رضامراد؛ مرصوص، فائزه. (1395).  استاندارد مرجع آموزش زبان فارسی. تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

محمد علی نژاد، بتول؛ پهلوان نژاد، محمد رضا و پیشقدم، رضا. (1389). بلاغت مقابله‌ای و بررسی فراگفتمان در انشاهای توصیفی فارسی‌زبانان و فارسی‌آموزان عرب (پایان‌نامه‌ی کارشناسی ارشد). دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد، ایران.

میرزایی، آزاده؛ صفری، پگاه. (1394). ساخت واژه-متن‌های تخصصی و عمومی زبان فارسی بر اساس بسامدگیری واژه‌های نقشی و محتوایی. میرزایی، آزاده، مجموعه مقالات نخستین همایش ملی زبان شناسی پیکره‌ای (192-175). تهران: نشر نویسه پارسی.
References:
Badri, S., Shaqaghi, V., & Modarresighavami, G. (2016). Investigating the Factors of Grammatical Coherence in Written Texts of Turkish Persian-Learners Students (M.A. Thesis). University of Allameh Tabatabai, Tehran, Iran. [In Persian]
Bateni, M. R. (2013). Description of Persian Grammatical Structure (30rd Ed). Tehran: Amir kabir. [In Persian]
Firth, J. R. (1957). Synopsis of Linguistic Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Halliday, M. A. K. & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2004). An introduction to functional grammar (3rd ed.). London: Arnold.
Halliday, M .A. K. & Hassan, R. (1976). Cohesion in English.London: Longman.
Hyland, K. K. (2004). Disciplinary interactions:metadiscourse: metadiscourse in L2 postgraduate writings, Journal of second language writing.13, pp 133-151. Available on: http://www.sciencedirect.com
Mirzaei, A. & Safari, P. (2014). Building specialized and general documents in Persian based on the frequency of function and content words. Mirzaei,A., proceeding of 1st National Conference on Corpus Linguistics (175-192), Tehran: NevisehParsi.[In Persian]
Mohammadalinezhad, B., Pahlevannezhad, M. R., & Pishghadam, R. (2010).Contrastive Rhetorics and the Study of Metadiscourse in Persian Native Speakers’ and Arab Learners’ Compositions (M.A. Thesis). University of Ferdowsi, Mashhad, Iran. [In Persian]
Rezapoor, I. & Ahmadyoosefi, F. (2018). Learning Syntactic Groups in Persian clauses in the Writing of foreign Persian-Learners ( M.A. Thesis). University of Semnan. Semnam, Iran.
Sahraei, R. M. & Marsoos, F. (2016). Persian Teaching Reference Standard.Tehran: Allameh Tabatabai publications.[In Persian]
Selinker, L. (1972). Interlanguage.  IRAL, 10, 201-231.
Yang, W. & Sun.Y. (2012). The use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing   by   Chinese   EFL learners   at   different   proficiency   levels.Journal of Linguistics and Education, 23,31–48.
Yoon, H. & Polio, C. (2016).The Linguistic Development of Students of English as a Second Language in Two Written Genres, TESOL,51, 275-301.