عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of flipped teaching-learning method on Persian-language learners' reading and writing skills in the context of the second language acquisition. The statistical population consisted of 58 eighth grade Persian language learners aged 14-15 of the International girls' school in Tehran. Using standardized placement test results, the intermediate language learners were selected by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into control (29 students) and experimental (29 students) groups. The experimental group was exposed to flipped instruction throughout 10 75-minute sessions. The study adopted quasi-experimental design. The main research instrument was pre-test and post-test. Data analysis was performed using one-way covariance analysis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine the normality of the data. Reliability index (Cronbach’s Alpha) was 0.91. The results of the covariance (ANCOVA), based on the e-learning materials provided by the researcher and the audio book which formed the main learning process for flipped instruction group, showed that deep and stable learning and participation of 95% of learners in the classroom was achieved. This type of learning was influenced by factors such as strategies of exploratory learning process, independent and deep learning with appropriate time management leading to understanding, application, and analysis of lesson concepts. In future research, the content and type of electronic content produced in this research can have many practical applications for researchers of material development, virtual education, teaching methods, testing and educational planning.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of flipped teaching-learning method on the development of reading and writing skills of Persian to non-Persian language learners. The statistical population consisted of 58 language learners aged 14 to 15 years at the International Girls' School in Tehran. Using standardized test results, the intermediate language learners were selected by convenience sampling and were randomly divided into control (n = 29) and experimental (n = 29) groups. The experimental group underwent the training method for 10 sessions, each session for 75 minutes. The research instrument was pre-test and post-test. As the pre-test and post-test the two groups of control and experiment are studied in reading and writing skills and the method is quasi-experimental, using one-way analysis of covariance(ANCOVA). The data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of the covariance test, based on the e-learning materials provided by the researcher and the book as central to the process of flipped language learners in the classroom, provided a deep and sustained learning and participation of 95% of learners as confirmed by the teacher's observation. The content and type of the electronic materials prepared for this research and the other findings in the field of flipped learning, as a new teaching method, can provide many different usages and practical solutions for researchers of content generation, virtual education, teaching techniques, test construction, and instructional planning.
Flipped instruction or flipped classroom is an advanced form of "reverse instruction"; a term which was first proposed in an article by Lage et al. (2000). This concept gradually became established through the publication of various articles at the end of the first decade of the 21st century. The concept of flipped instruction was conceived about one decade and a half and it has been discussed in scientific circles since its inception. Google trends do not show any decrease in interest in this concept; the tendency for the issue even increased in 2013.
2. Theoretical foundations
The advancement of new technologies has led to learning-teaching activities to change from passive to active blended learning. Today, learners can follow the learning process by using e-tools like cell phones, laptops, tablets, and other related tools, and this way they play an active role in learning. One type of active learning techniques is the flipped classroom.
Lage et al. (2000, 32) provide the simplest definition of the flipped classroom. According to the events that were traditionally placed inside the classroom, are now taken place outside the classroom and vice versa; in fact, the flipped classroom is based on learner-centered activities and active learning. Therefore, the traditional classroom is usually teacher-based, where the teacher manages all discussions and conversations taking place, while the flipped classroom is student-centered and is interactively managed by the teacher and learners.
3. Data Collection Method
The statistical sample used in this study included 58 eighth grade female students at the International School in Tehran. A simple random sampling was used in this research, using available participants that were divided into experimental and control groups. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the learning achievement of the students' reading and writing skills using the two educational methods, namely flipped learning and lecturing as the independent variables. First, the learners took a reading pre-test. The experimental group was asked to study the course content before the class and were given the file of audio book containing reading texts and the film of stories. They could watch the film as many times as they needed. In the class, the learners worked on comprehension exercises and asked questions. They were instructed how to draw the mind map of the lesson content, how to classify the subjects in their minds, and how to organize their ideas and answers. The learners also answered the comprehension questions in groups of two, and their language mistakes were explained and fixed by the teacher. After a course of 10 sessions instruction, the experimental group with the flipped classroom and the control group with the traditional method, i.e., lecturing, took a post-test and a statistical data analysis was performed by ANCOVA.
4. Data Analysis
The present research was a quasi-experimental study that investigated the effect of flipped learning and lecturing, as the independent variables, on the language students' learning achievement, as the dependent variable. The two groups performed similarly before the intervention of the independent variable. In the post-test, the experimental group had a better and more effective performance than the control group. Therefore, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental and control groups' reading and writing skills in post-test. Thus, the mean score of the experimental group on the post-test was greater than that of the control group which confirms the effect of the flipped learning method on the language learners’ reading and writing skills improvement.
5. Discussion and Conclusion
The present study sought to find the answer to this question that to what extent the flipped learning method affects language learners' reading and writing skills. The results of the study showed a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test mean scores of the two groups which means that the experimental group performed significantly better than the control group on the reading test as a post-test. The experimental group which was instructed through the independent variable of flipped instruction was more active and engaged compared with the control group which was taught the reading skill via the lecture method.
With the flipped instruction method, learners found that learning is not just repeating the teacher's notes. The method specifically creates a dynamic classroom environment. Results showed that by using active methods and flipped learning strategies; the teacher can activate learners and reinforce the students' collaborative spirit.