تحلیل کاربردشناختی کتاب آموزش نوین زبان فارسی بر اساس اصول گرایس

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده ‏ی مسئول، استادیار گروه زبانشناسی همگانی، دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانش ‏آموخته ‏ی کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی زبانان، دانشگاه سمنان

10.30479/jtpsol.2020.12644.1472

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسیِ اصول گرایس در مجموعه‌ی پنج جلدیِ «آموزش نوین زبان فارسی» نوشته‌ی احسان قبول می‌پردازد. یکی از جنبه‌های بررسی کاربردشناسی زبان، بررسی معانی ضمنی پاره‌گفتارها و معانی بافتی است. در حقیقت افراد گاهی منظورِ خود را صریح و واضح بیان نمی‌نمایند و این مسئله می‌تواند موفّقیت در امر ارتباط را با مشکلاتی مواجه نماید و پیامدهایی را برای مشارکان گفتگو و بالطّبع خوانندگان این متون، به همراه داشته باشد. داده‌های این پژوهش عبارت‌ است از تعداد 76 مکالمه - برگرفته از مجموعه‌ی پنج جلدی فوق - که در مجموع شامل 1972 جمله می‌باشند. این داده‌ها بر اساس اصل همکاری گرایس و قواعد مربوط به آن و رعایت یا عدم رعایت قواعد (نقض و تخطّی از قواعد، خروج یا انصراف و تعدّی و تعلیق از قواعد) تجزیه و تحلیل شده‌اند. روش تحقیقِ این پژوهش،‌‌ کمّی-کیفی و روش تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها، توصیفی-تحلیلی می‌باشد. نتایج پژوهش نشان ‌می‌دهد که بیشترین میزان رعایت قواعد - سه قاعده‌ی کیفیّت، ارتباط و شیوه- را در سطح مقدّماتی داریم. در مورد قاعده‌ی‌کمیّت، بر خلاف ‌انتظار، سطح مقدّماتی از درصد ‌کمتری نسبت به سایر سطوح برخوردار ‌است. در‌سطح میانی، تمامی قواعد نسبت به سطح پیشرفته کمتر رعایت‌شده‌اند که این‌ نتیجه دور ‌از انتظار ‌می‌باشد. در سطح پیشرفته، هر چهار قاعده بیشتر ‌از سطح میانی رعایت‌شده و حتّی قاعده‌ی‌کمیّت از سطح مقدّماتی هم، بیشتر رعایت ‎شده‌است. در مجموع، میزان رعایت اصول -با احتساب روند نزولی- بدین شرح است: سطح مقدّماتی و سپس پیشرفته و در انتها سطح میانی. علّتِ این امر را می‌توان در فاصله‌ی موجود میان آگاهی واقعی و‌آگاهی آرمانی جستجو کرد. این فاصله برای یک زبان‌آموز خارجی، غریب است و اعتماد نویسنده به بیشینه‌ی آگاهیِ ممکنِ خواننده، تا جایی است که احتمال می‌رود ارتباط لازم میان نویسنده و خواننده خدشه‌دار گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Pragmatic Analysis of “Modern Persian Language Training Textbook” Based on Grice Principles (aka “Amoozesh e Novin e Zaban e Farsi Textbook”)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Razavian 1
  • Tamanna Elahi Panah 2
1 Corresponding author, Associate professor, Faculty of Humanities, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
2 MA of Teaching Persian to Non-Persian speakers - Semnan University, Semnan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Non-Persian language textbooks, as well as other educational content, are no exception. Obviously, if the teaching resources of Farsi are more comprehensive and accurate and understandable to learners and create less of a challenge, they will be a good tool for teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers effectively. The variety and quality of books available for teaching English and many other scientific languages, has made it easier for teachers to teach their respective languages and it has also facilitated learning for learners. The books available for teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers unlike other languages, is limited to a number of special books and relevant training centers and teachers are very limited in the choice of teaching options. Therefore, enriching resources as much as possible, can be an effective and useful step in education.The data obtained from five-volume series of the Amoozesh e Novin e Zaban e Farsi Textbook shows that, we have the highest level of maxims observance -three maxims of quality, relation and manner- at the elementary level. The result shows the strength of the elementary level because this level is for beginner learners who have little or no knowledge of Persian pragmatics and if observance of cooperative principles at this level is low, language learners will have trouble and there will be no proper training.
Extended Abstract:
1. Introduction
Textbooks are the media that teachers and students use every day so sometimes as a whole syllabus, the teacher emphasizes it. How textbook content is organized, is an important factor in determining how to learn. Sometimes inefficiencies and inadequate content make students difficult to understand or have less than expected results. Non-Persian language textbooks,as well as other educational content, are no exception.Obviously,if the teaching resources of Farsi are more comprehensive and accurate and understandable to learners and create less of a challenge, they will be a good tool for teaching Persian to non-Persian speakers effectively. The variety and quality of books available for teaching English and many other scientific languages,has made it easier for teachers to teach their respective languages and it has also facilitated learning for learners. The books available for teaching Persian to non-Persianspeakers unlike other languages, is limited to a number of special  books and  relevant training centers and teachers are very limited in the choice of teaching options. Therefore,enriching resources as much as possible, can be an effective and useful step in education.
One of the factors that can be incorporated into the design of a book, especially textbooks, is Grice's cooperative principles in conversations because it results in anefficient transfer of meaning. Herbert Paul Grice -language analytical philosopher- writes “Logic and Conversation”. In order for one person to be able to interpret another person's words, some kind of cooperation principle must be taken into account.At the elementary level of language learning, it is difficult to understand the pragmatics of the second language,and failure to observe it will lead to ambiguity and difficulty.Therefore, it is important to observe this principle in books related to the teaching of non-Persian languages. Five-volume seriesof  the “Modern Persian Language Teaching”, written at different levels from elementary to advanced, is one of the newest in the field of foreign language education. Therefore, in the present study, it has been attempted to analyze these books using the Grice principles.
2. Theoretical foundations
The theoretical framework for the current research is based on the pragmatics and Grice’s cooperative principles.Grice’s cooperative principles,is one of the most commonly used topics in pragmatics.It deals with the communicative role of sentences and how language is used in relation to humans. In this respect, it is particularly important in pragmatics.Grice has named the “Principle of Cooperation” and he has called the four principles of quantity, quality, manner, and relation, Maxim.He outlined the principle of cooperation in four groups, as follows:
Maxim of quality:Do not say what you believe is false and also do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
Maxim of quantity: Make your contribution as informative as is required and do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
Maxim of relation (or relevance): be relevant, and says things that are pertinent to the discussion.
Maxim of manner: Avoid obscurity of expression and ambiguity. Be brief (avoid unnecessary prolixity) and be orderly.
3. Deta Collection Method
In the present study, the cases of  Observance and Non-observance of cooperative principles in “Modern Persian language teaching textbooks” by Ehsan Ghabool (1396) have been analyzed, violation and flouting of maxims, opting out, infringment and suspension of maxims.This is done separately from beginner to advanced levels. The method of research  is qualitative-quantitative and data analysis method is descriptive-analytical.All of the conversations in five-volume series of these textbooks have been reviewed and analyzed.The data of this research are: 76 conversations, totally containing 1972 sentences.Conversations in the CDs of each book have  also been written by the researcher and then analyzed.
4. Discussion and Conclusion
The data obtained from five-volume series of the Amoozesh e Novin e Zaban e Farsi Textbook shows that, we have the highest level of maxims observance -three maxims of quality, relation and manner- at the elementary level.The result shows the strength of the elementary level because this level is for beginner learners who have little or no knowledge of Persian pragmatics and if observance of cooperative principles at this level is low, language learners will have trouble and there will be no proper training.
At mid-level, data review indicates that all the maxims are lower than the advanced level, which is a far-reaching result.
At the advanced level, a survey of data shows that in this volume, each of the four maxims is more than the middle level which is a desirable and expected outcome.At this level, learners are expected to be familiar with linguistic concepts and also to some extent able to communicate, so it is better to apply the concepts of pragmatics at this level and it's easier to learn.Age, gender, social status, and experience in the relevant L2-speaking communities, previous experiences with pragmatically competent L2 speakers,are considered to be important factors in the successful production and reception of pragmatic concepts.
At the elementary level of foreign language learning, learners areoften younger,and as theyage, their understanding of language pragmatics increases.So it is better and more acceptable-both in the native and  foreign language- to consider the upward trend in Non-observance in textbooks. As learners' pragmatic capability is gradually increasing in line with their direct and indirect language acquisition and training, non-observance is expected to increase gradually, from basic to advanced levels. An upward trend in the training of applied conceptshas been well respected at both theelementary and advanced levels but at the middle level we are experiencing a downward trend.
The reason for this can be traced back to the gap between the real consciousness and the ideal consciousness that Goldman speaks of. This distance is unfamiliar to a foreign learner and the author's trust in the reader ideal consciousness is to the extent that the necessary relationship between the author and the reader is disturbed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grice’s cooperative principles
  • Amoozesh e Novin e Zaban e Farsi Textbooks
  • Pragmatics
  • Non-observance of cooperative principles
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منابع اینترنتی و لوح فشرده: آموزش نوین زبان فارسی، جلد 1-5 (1396)، مشهد، مرکز بین‌المللی آموزش زبان فارسی به غیرفارسی‌زبانان (لوح فشرده).