عنوان مقاله [English]
There is no language in the world that has borrowed from other languages. Loan word is a sign of dynamic of a language. Arabic vocabulary has been entered the Persian . the present study has investigated the impact of Arabic evolved vocabulary on understanding native Arabic learning Persian . the statistical sample of the present study has consisted of 80 native Arabic learning Persian of imam Khomeini international university , Persian language learning center in the academic year 2018-2019. 40 of these learners were at elementary level and the other 40 were at advanced level. 47 words were given to both groups and the chi-square test was used to compare the number of errors in each of the 47 words in the two groups . the results of studies of this category of evolved vocabulary show that Arabic vocabulary entered the Persian vocabulary has had a negative impact on language learning because the errors rate of the Persian learner in elementary level was 49% and in advanced level 34% . this demonstrates the fact that the semantic evolution of Arabic vocabulary is one of the most important sources of errors in understanding native Arabic learning Persian and using the original meaning of the word without understanding its semantic evolution is one of the most effective causes of error.
Word borrowing is a sign of dynamism in a language, there are no language in the word which hasn’t borrowed from other languages. Arabic is not excluded either. Arabic words have undergone fundamental changes in the semantic field whilst entering the Persian language, in ways that either the original meaning of the word has been forgotten; or the original meaning of the word is preserved and its instance and meaning have been expanded, decreased, Changed, promoted or demoted. The presence of such evolved Arabic words in Persian has caused linguistic interferences in the process of learning Persian by Arabic speakers. The interference between and among native language and target language is one of the most prominent factors in the emergence of linguistic errors. examining how and the extent to which it affects the learning of Persian language among Arabic speakers can be utilized to improve the teaching and learning process, both for teachers and for Persian-language learners. The impact of semantic changes in Arabic words involved in Persian is important in several instances:
• Teaching Arabic to Persian speakers
• Teaching Persian language to southern Arabic-speaking children of the country
• The effect of semantic changes on translation from Persian to Arabic
• The effect of Interferences of evolved Arabic words on Persian language learning of Arabic speakers
The latter is the main topic of the present study, considering that no similar research has been done in this field in Persian language so far, and the study of the effects of the interference of Arabic words on learning Persian language is unprecedented, the need for research on this case becomes obvious. Therefore, in this study, our main goal is to investigate the effects of the interference of Arabic words on the process of learning Persian language by Arabic speakers ,and this study seeks to answer the question of “what effects do Arabic words in Persian language have on the process of learning Persian language of Arabic speakers?” Since examination of the extent to which the Arabic words which have entered the Persian language due to historical, proximity, immigration, or other reasons, reveal to what extent Arabic speakers misunderstand the exact meaning of the word. Also in education, being aware of these evolved Arabic words will aid educators. The statistical sample of the present study was 80 Arabic speakers from Persian Language learning centre of Imam Khomeini International University in the academic year of 1397-1397, of which 40 were in general basics level and 40 others at the supplementary level. The 47 evolved Arabic words were given to both groups through a multi-choice test, and using the chi-square test, the number of errors in each of these 47 words was compared in both general and advanced groups. The results of studies of this category of evolved words showed that Arabic words that have entered the field of Persian words have a negative effect on learning Persian, and the rate of errors has been determined to be 49% and 34% in general Persian language learners and Advanced level respectively. These results indicate that the semantic evolution of the imported Arabic words, even with the development of language skill and learning, is still one of the most important origins of errors in Persian language comprehension among Arabic speakers, and the use of the original meaning without understanding its semantic development is one of the most prominent causes of the error. According to the statistical results of the research, the interference of the original meaning of Arabic words with its evolved meaning in Persian on learning a foreign or second language (Persian language), for various reasons such as expanding the semantic domain of the words involved, semantic limitation of words Semantic alteration of the words involved, semantic enhancement and degradation, makes the occurrence of linguistic errors more distinguished, and is one of the effective factors in the occurrence of a significant share of Persian linguistic errors among Arabic speaker learners; Therefore, given that language teaching and learning is based on the three basic principle of the teacher, language learner and textbooks, We need comprehensive participation and adjustment, so it is recommended that teachers who teach Persian to Arabic speakers Note the following:
In the field of lexicography, it is recommended that the words originally entered from Arabic into Persian be specified for the language learners, and that the learners be asked to express these words in simple sentences.
On the subject of comparison of the words of two languages and meaning alteration, the language instructor should choose similar items from the first and second languages, and this requires that the Persian language instructor increase his knowledge in the field of Arabic and Persian words. To be able to show the differences and semantic similarities of the words between Arabic and Persian.
The choice of Instruction methods should be based on the problems of learners and seek to solve them. The task-oriented method is a good option for vocabulary training.
Using the example design method from each learner, the instructor in each class can introduce the semantically transformed words and ask the learner to give an example.
In regards to the content of textbooks, it is recommended that special books for Arabic speakers learning Persian language be written in the field of Persian language instruction, since in preparing special educational textbooks for Arabic speakers, focal point can be common words among two languages, resulting in reduced vocabulary errors.