The First Corpus-Based Persian Academic Word List:Development and Pedagogical Implications

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 Assistant Professor, Yasouj University

2 Assistant Professor, Marvdasht Islamic Azad University

3 PhD candidate, Razi University




عنوان مقاله [English]


نویسندگان [English]

  • ---- --- 1
  • --- --- 2
  • --- --- 3
چکیده [English]

This article generates the first Persian Academic Word List (PAWL) which comprises the most frequently used academic vocabulary in Persian academic texts. The PAWL was compiled from a corpus of 927,008 running words from academic resources. Two principles of range and frequency of word families guided the selection and arrangement of the word list. The corpus included seven books and one hundred and twelve research articles selected from 28 journals using simple random sampling. The corpus pertained to seven disciplines including Arts and Architecture, Engineering and Technology, Agriculture and Natural resources, Medical sciences, Veterinary sciences, Humanities, and Basic sciences. The established PAWL contains 539 headwords, in books and research articles under study. The PAWL may serve as an essential frame of reference and a valuable source for Persian language learners, researchers and materials planners, particularly in developing materials when the mastery of Persian academic vocabulary and literacy is an aim.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Persian Academic Word List
  • teaching Persian
  • academic vocabulary
  • frequency
  • range
Bauer, L., & Nation, P. (1993). Word families. International Journal of Lexicography, 6(4), 253–279.
Bauman, J. F., & Graves, M. F.(2010). What is academic vocabulary? Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 5(1), 4-12.
Chen, Q., & Ge, G. C. (2007). A corpus-based lexical study on frequency and distribution of Coxhead’s AWL word families in medical research articles. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 502-514.
Coady, J., Magoto, J., Hubbard, P., Graney, J., & Mokhtari, K. (1993).  High frequency vocabulary and reading proficiency in ESL readers. In T. Huckin, M. Haynes, & J. Coady (Eds.), Second language reading and vocabulary acquisition (pp. 217-228).  Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Campion, M., & Elley, W. (1971). An academic vocabulary list. Wellington: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 213-238.
Coxhead, A. (2012). Academic Vocabulary, writing and English for academic Purposes: Perspectives from second language learners. RELC Journal, 43(1), 137-145.
Cowan, J. R. (1974). Lexical and syntactic research for the design of EFL reading materials. TESOL Quarterly, 8(4), 389–400.
Davarpanah, M.R., Sanji, M., & Aramideh, M. (2009). Farsi lexical analysis and stop word list. Library Hi Tech journal, 27(3), 435-449.
Davies, M. (2008). The corpus of contemporary American: 450 million words, 1990-present. Retrieved from
Durrant, P. (2014). Discipline- and level-specificity in university students’ written vocabulary. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 328-356.
Farrell, P. (1990). Vocabulary in ESP: A lexical analysis of the English of electronics and a study of semi-technical vocabulary (CLCS Occasional Paper No. 25). Dublin: Trinity College, Centre for Language and Communication Studies.
Gardner, D. (2008). Validating the construct of word in applied corpus-based vocabulary research: A critical survey. Applied Linguistics, 28(2), 241-265. Retrieved from
Gardner, D. (2013). Exploring vocabulary: Language in action. Routledge.
Gardner, D., & Davies, M. (2014). A new academic vocabulary list. Applied Linguistics, 35(3), 305-327. Retrieved from
Ghadessy, P. (1979). Frequency counts, word lists, material preparation: A new approach. English Teaching Forum, 17, 24-27.
Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does-and does not-say. American Educator, 32(2), 8-23, 42-44.
Graves, M. F. (2006). The vocabulary book: Learning and instruction. International Reading Association.
Hanciog˘lu, N., Neufeld, S., & Eldridge, J. (2008). Through the looking glass and into the land of lexico-grammar. English for Specific Purposes, 27, 459-79.
Hyland, K., & Tse, P. (2007). Is there an “Academic vocabulary”? TESOL Quarterly, 41(2), 235-253. Retrieved from
Jacobs, V. A. (2008). Adolescent literacy: Putting the crisis in context. Harvard Educational Review, 78, 7-39.
Li, Y., &  Qian, D.D. (2010). Profiling the Academic Word List (AWL) in a financial corpus. System, 38, 402-411.
Lynn, R. W. (1973). Preparing word lists a suggested method. RELC Journal, 4(1), 25-32.
Martınez, I. A.,  Beck, S. C., & Panza, C. B. (2009). Academic vocabulary in agriculture research articles: A corpus-based study. English for Specific Purposes, 28, 183-198.
Mudraya, O. (2006). Engineering English: A lexical frequency instructional model. English for Specific Purposes, 25(2), 235-256.
Nagy, W., & Townsend, D. (2012). Words as tools: Learning academic vocabulary as language acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 47, 91-108.
Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P. (2008). Teaching vocabulary: Strategies and techniques. Heinle, Cengage Learning.
Praninskas, J. (1972). American university word list. London: Longman.
Read, J. (1998). Validating a test to measure depth of vocabulary knowledge. In A. J. Kunnan (Ed.), Validation in language assessment: Selected papers from the 17th language testing research colloquium (pp. 41-60). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Schmitt, N., & Zimmerman, C. B. (2002). Derivative word forms: What do learners know? TESOL Quarterly, 36(2), 145-171.
Taghva, K., Beckley, R., & Sadeh, M. (2003). A list of farsi stopwords. Technical Report, ISRI.
Vongpumivitch, V.,  Huang, J., & Chang, Y. (2009). Frequency analysis of the words in the Academic Word List (AWL) and non-AWL content words in applied linguistics research papers. English for Specific Purposes, 28, 33-41.
Wang, K. M. T., & Nation, P. (2004). Word meaning in academic English: Homography in the academic word list. Applied Linguistics, 25(3), 291-314.
Wang, J., Liang, S. L., & Ge, G.C. (2008). Establishment of a medical academic word list. English for Specific Purposes, 27, 442-458
Ward, J. (2009). A basic engineering English word list for less proficient foundation engineering undergraduates. English for Specific Purposes, 28, 170-182.
West, M. (1953). A general service list of English words. London: Longman, Green & Co.
Xue, G., & Nation, P. (1984). A university word list. Language Learning and Communication, 3(2), 215-219.
Zimmerman, C. B. (2009). Word knowledge: A vocabulary teacher’s handbook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.