بررسی تصاویر درسنامه آموزش زبان فارسی بر اساس رویکرد نشانه‌شناسی اجتماعی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه زبان انگلیسی و زبان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بوشهر

2 نویسنده ی مسئول، استادیار گروه زبان‌شناسی و زبان‌های خارجی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

3 استادیار گروه زبان انگلیسی و زبان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بوشهر

4 دانشیار گروه زبان انگلیسی و زبان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بوشهر

10.30479/jtpsol.2020.12764.1471

چکیده

کرس و ون‌لیوون با استفاده از فرانقش‌های هلیدی (Halliday, 1996)، به تدوین یک چهارچوب تحلیلی جدید موسوم به «دستور طراحی بصری» برای تحلیل تصاویر همت گماردند که توسط دو اثر مهم، یعنی نشانه‌شناسی اجتماعی هاچ و کرس (Hodge & Kress, 1988) و خواندن تصاویر کرس و ون‌لیوون  Kress, 2006)& (Van Leeuwen معرفی شد. نوشتار حاضر با استفاده از چارچوبِ به‌روزترِ نشانه‌شناسـی اجتمـاعی کرس و ون‌لیوون  Kress, 2006)&(Van Leeuwen ، چگونگی بازنمایی تصاویر درسنامه‌ی آموزش زبان فارسی به خارجی‌ها تألیف صفارمقدم را به روش کیفی-توصیفی مـورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار داده است. نتایجِ یافته‌های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که در تحلیل سه نقش بازنمودی، تعاملی و ترکیبیِ تصاویر بررسی‌شده، تصاویر روایتی بسیار کم، اما نوع مفهومی آن بسیار زیاد است؛ بنابراین، اعمال و رخدادها به تصویرکشیده نمی‌شوند. در سـطح معنـای بینـافردی، افـراد شرکت‌کننده‌ی بیشتر تصاویر، به‌صورت نشان‌دهنده حـضور دارند و تعامل کمتری میان مشارکین بازنمایی شده است. در سطح معنای متنی، بیشتر مشارکت‌کنندگانِ تصاویر با نمای باز نمایش داده شده‌اند و محل قرارگیری آن‌ها در تصویر، نشان از بازنمایی برجستگی مشارکت‌کننده دارد. باتوجه به رنگی بودن تمام تصاویر، وجه‌نمایی از نوع طبیعی و درجه‌ی بالای واقع‌گرایی است. بر این اساس، در این کتاب، با استفاده از تصاویر نسبتاً واقعی و طبیعی از زندگی فارسی‌زبان‌ها، تلاش می‌شود الگوهای مسلط فرهنگ ملی مذهبی ایرانی به مخاطبان غیرفارسی‌زبان ارائه و تفهیم گردد. در انتها، یادآور می‌شود که نتایج این پژوهش می‌تواند به ‌افزایش دانش و آگاهی مؤلفان کتاب‌های درسی، در به‌کارگیری تصاویر، در روند یادگیری فراگیران کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Social-Semiotic Study of the Images in Persian language-learning Textbook

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habib Ahmadi 1
  • Zahra Babasalari 2
  • Saeed Yazdani 3
  • Ali Rabi 4
1 PhD Candidate in Linguistics, Department of English Language and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch, Bushehr, Iran.
2 Corresponding author, Assistant Professor, Department of Linguistics & Foreign Languages, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of English Language and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch, Bushehr, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Department of English Language and Linguistics, Islamic Azad University, Bushehr Branch, Bushehr, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Understanding of meaning not only requires the analysis of language in text, but also other semiotic resources, such as images. This study attempts to employ a multimodal analysis of educational books to ascertain the extent to which visual and verbal components create meaning. The theoretical basis of this study was social semiotic theory by Kress and Van Leuween which investigate images and their related texts in 3 metafunctions including representational, interactional and compositional. This study investigates central concerns of the use of text and visuals within the Language learning textbooks taught at University by SaffarMoghaddam. To do this, the Language learning textbooks were evaluated and analyzed. The results of the research findings indicate that narrative images were very low frequency but the conceptual type was very high frequency and did not depict actions and events. In the sense of interpersonal meaning, most of the participants had more imagery and less interaction among the participants. At the contextual level, most participants were presented with long-shut images. Due to the color of all images, the image was of a natural kind and of a high degree of realism. The illustrations in this book aim to present and understand the dominant patterns of Iranian national religious culture to its non-Persian speaking audience. Therefore, it can be concluded that these images reflect a fairly realistic picture of Persian-speaking life. The results of this study can help to increase the knowledge and awareness of textbook authors in using images in the learning process of learners.
Extended Abstract:
In most educational systems, textbooks are the most common tool in educating learners. The majority of textbooks add visual images with the aim of helping students have a thorough understanding of topics and contents of lessons. These visual images such as pictures, photos and paints, etc. are adopted to transmit the information of different matters. Multimodality is one of characteristics embedded in these discourses.  In language teaching, the teacher also needs to use visual aids. Visual aids motivate learners, make them interested in learning, and make learning easier. Persian language textbooks for non-Persian speakers are very versatile today. Nowadays researches show that using visual (also images) and written texts together help learners more. But how are images of such books represented? There is a wide range of approaches to this matter among the existing studies on textbooks. These books have both verbal and visual layers. The understanding of meaning not only requires the analysis of language in text, but also the study of other semiotic resources, such as images, gestures or sounds. This study was an attempt to employ a multimodal analysis of educational books to ascertain the extent to which visual and verbal components create meaning. The theoretical basis of this study was social semiotic theory proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996/2006)) and Halliday’s (1976/2004) systemic functional theory which investigate images and their related texts in three meta-functions including representational, interactional (interpersonal), and compositional. The present study investigates the central concerns of the use of text and visuals within the Language learning textbooks taught at University which have been prescribed by Ahmad Saffar Moghaddam. To do this, the Language learning textbooks were evaluated and analyzed. The main objective is to “identify the visual strategies used by writers and illustrators, to convey a representation of reality, to create interaction with readers and to form coherent wholes of communication. The results of the research findings indicate that in the analysis of the three representational, interactive and textual meta-functions of the investigated images, narrative images have very low frequency but the conceptual type has very high frequency and does not depict actions and events. In the sense of interpersonal meaning, most of the participants have more imagery and less interaction among the participants. At the contextual level, most participants are presented with long-shut images, and their location in the image indicates a participant's prominence. Due to the color of all images, the image is of a natural kind and of a high degree of realism. The illustrations in this book aim to present and understand the dominant patterns of Iranian national religious culture to its non-Persian speaking audience. Images often depict non-Iranian students and are gender-represented equally. Out of a total of 64 analyzed images, about 8 images are the main subject of the human, 8 images are the main subject of those objects (Iranian miniature calligraphy and painting) and other images (about 48 images) are dedicated to historical and religious sites, but no images are related to the subject. Animals have not paid. One of the important and valuable points in representing these images is the strong presence of students in the images. In all of these images, male and female students and professors are interacting with each other. Another important point in the representation of these images is the emphasis and use of religious and national tools, signs, and symbols. The use of images of the shrine of Imam Reza, Hazrat Abdolazim and Imamzadeh Saleh and the mosques of GoharShad and Sheikh Lotfollah are considered as symbols of the religion of Islam. The depiction of Persepolis, the tomb of Ferdowsi, Sa´di, Attar, Khayyam, Ibn Sina and Ferdowsi are all symbols of the national history. The simultaneous emphasis and use of these national and religious symbols together induces and strengthens the national-religious sense in the audience. In introducing the cities of Iran, the squares, the bazaar and the University of Tehran are depicted. Therefore, it can be concluded that these images reflect a fairly realistic picture of Persian-speaking life. The results of this study and the other studies (like this) can help to increase the knowledge and awareness of textbook authors in using images in the learning process of learners. The study is intended to serve as a framework for assisting authors, teachers and other professionals involved in writing and teaching textbooks that are “appropriate for students specially students of Persian language”. Findings of the study pedagogically call for using appropriate pictures of real people and real environment which provide sufficient input for language learners. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social Semiotics
  • Visual Grammar
  • Representational
  • Interactional (Interpersonal) and Compositional Functions
  • textbooks
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