Allen, M., Witt, P. L., & Wheeless, L. R. (2006). The role of teacher immediacy as a motivational factor in student learning: Using meta-analysis to test a causal model. Communication Education, 55(1), 21-31.
Alrashidi, O., Phan, H. P., & Ngu, B. H. (2016). Academic engagement: An overview of its definitions, dimensions, and major conceptualizations. International Education Studies, 9(12), 41-52.
Alvandi, M., Mehrdad, A. G., &Karimi, L. (2015). The relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ critical thinking skills, their EQ and their students’ engagement in the task. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(3), 555-565.
Amiryousefi, M., & Mirkhani, M (2019). Interrelationships between willingness to communicate, self-concept, ideal L2 self, and teacher credibility among Persian language learners in Iran. Journal of Teaching Persian to Speakers of Other Languages (JTPSOL), 8(18), 51-68.
Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45(5), 369-386.
Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Irvine, C. K. S., & Walker, D. (2018). Introduction to research in education. Cengage Learning.
Banfield, S. R., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2006). The effect of teacher misbehaviors on teacher credibility and affect for the teacher. Communication Education, 55(1), 63-72.
Beebe, S. A., & Mottet, T. P. (2009). Students and teachers. In W. F. Eadie (Ed.), 21st century communication: A reference handbook (pp. 349-357). Sage.
Bizzell, P., & Herzberg, B. (2001). The rhetorical tradition: Readings from classical times to the present. Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Carter, C. P., Reschly, A. L., Lovelace, M. D., Appleton, J. J., & Thompson, D. (2012). Measuring student engagement among elementary students: Pilot of the student engagement instrument—elementary version. School Psychology Quarterly, 27(2), 61-73.
Comadena, M. E., Hunt, S. K., & Simonds, C. J. (2007). The effects of teacher clarity, nonverbal immediacy, and caring on student motivation, affective and cognitive learning. Communication Research Reports, 24(3), 241-248.
Dalun, Z., Hsu, H.Y., Kwok, O. M., Benz, M., & Bowman-Perrott, L. (2011). The impact of basic-level parent engagements on student achievement: Patterns associated with race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 22(1), 28-39.
Dotterer, A. M., & Lowe, K. (2011). Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(12), 1649-1660.
Ellis, K. (2000). Perceived teacher confirmation: The development and validation of an instrument and two studies of the relationship to cognitive and affective learning. Human Communication Research, 26(1), 264-291.
Estepp, C. M., & Roberts, T. G. (2015). Teacher immediacy and professor/student rapport as predictors of motivation and engagement. NACTA Journal, 59(1), 155-163.
Fallah, N. (2014). Willingness to communicate in English, communication self-confidence, motivation, shyness and teacher immediacy among Iranian English major undergraduates: A structural equation modeling approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 30(1), 140-147.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.
Frymier, A. B., & Thompson, C. A. (1992). Perceived teacher affinity‐seeking in relation to perceived teacher credibility. Communication Education, 41(4), 388-399.
Gerhardt, M. W. (2016). The importance of being social: Instructor credibility and the Millennials. Studies in Higher Education, 41(9), 1533-1547.
Ghelichli, Y., Seyyedrezaei, S. H., Barani, G., & Mazandarani, O. (2020). The relationship between dimensions of student engagement and language learning motivation among Iranian EFL learners. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 8(31), 43-57.
Gholamrezaee, S., & Ghanizadeh, A. (2018). EFL teachers’ verbal and nonverbal immediacy: A study of its impact on students’ emotional states, cognitive learning, and burnout. Psychological Studies, 63(4), 398-409.
Hagenauer, G., Hascher, T., & Volet, S. E. (2015). Teacher emotions in the classroom: associations with students’ engagement, classroom discipline and the interpersonal teacher-student relationship. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 30(4), 385-403.
Halloran, S. M. (1982). Aristotle’s concept of ethos, or if not his somebody else’s. Rhetoric Review, 1(1), 58-63.
Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. L., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Communication and persuasion; psychological studies of opinion change. Yale University Press.
Hsu, L. (2010). The impact of perceived teachers’ nonverbal immediacy on students’ motivation for learning English. Asian EFL Journal, 12(4), 188-204.
Imlawi, J., Gregg, D., & Karimi, J. (2015). Student engagement in course-based social networks: The impact of instructor credibility and use of communication. Computers & Education, 88(1), 84-96.
Janosz, M., Archambault, I., Morizot, J., & Pagani, L. S. (2008). School engagement trajectories and their differential predictive relations to dropout. Journal of Social Issues, 64(1), 21-40.
Jimerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. The California School Psychologist, 8(1), 7-27.
Kahu, E., Stephens, C., Leach, L., & Zepke, N. (2015). Linking academic emotions and student engagement: Mature-aged distance students’ transition to university. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 39(4), 481-497.
Khajavy, G. H., Ghonsooly, B., Hosseini Fatemi, A., & Choi, C. W. (2016). Willingness to communicate in English: A microsystem model in the Iranian EFL classroom context. TESOL Quarterly, 50(1), 154-180.
Lashkari Kalat, F., Ahmadi Yazdi, Z., Ghanizadeh, A. (2018). EFL teachers’ verbal and nonverbal immediacy: A study of its detriments and consequences. European Journal of Education Studies, 4(5), 216-234.
Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement. The Journal of School Health, 74(7), 274-283.
McCroskey, J. C. (1998). An introduction to communication in the classroom (2nd Ed.). Tapestry Press.
McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J. (1999). Goodwill: A reexamination of the construct and its measurement. Communications Monographs, 66(1), 90-103.
McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J. (2013). Source credibility measures. Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science
. Retrieved from www.midss.ie
McCroskey, J. C., & Young, T. J. (1981). Ethos and credibility: The construct and its measurement after three decades. Communication Studies, 32(1), 24-34.
McCroskey, J. C., Holdridge, W., & Toomb, J. K. (1974). An instrument for measuring the source credibility of basic speech communication instructors. Communication Education, 23(1), 26-33.
Mehrabian, A. (1971). Immediacy: Liking and approach. In A. Mehrabian (Ed.), Silent messages (pp. 1-23). Wadsworth.
Mottet, T. P., Frymier, A. B., & Beebe, S. A. (2006). Theorizing about instructional communication. In T. P. Mottet, V. P. Richmond, & J. C. McCroskey (Eds.), Handbook of instructional communication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives (pp. 255-282). Allyn & Bacon.
Myers, S. A. (2008). Classroom student-teacher interaction. In W. Donsbach (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of communication (pp. 514-520). Blackwell.
Myers, S. A., Goodboy, A. K., & Members of COMM 600. (2014). College student learning, motivation, and satisfaction as a function of effective instructor communication behaviors. Southern Communication Journal, 79(1), 14-26.
Nayernia, A., Taghizadeh, M., & Farsani, M. A. (2020). EFL teachers’ credibility, nonverbal immediacy, and perceived success: A structural equation modelling approach. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1-15.
Nejati, R., Hassani, M. T., & Sahrapour, H. A. (2014). The relationship between gender and student engagement, instructional strategies, and classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(6), 1219-1226.
Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2014). On being grateful and kind: Results of two randomized controlled trials on study-related emotions and academic engagement. The Journal of Psychology, 148(1), 37-60.
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual (6th Ed.). Open University Press.
Papillon, T. (2001). Rhetoric, art, and myth: Isocrates and Busiris. In C. W. Wooten, & G. A. Kennedy (Eds.), The orator in action and theory in Greece and Rome (pp. 73-96). BRILL.
Parsons, S. A., Nuland, L. R., & Parsons, A. W. (2014). The ABCs of student engagement. Phi Delta Kappan, 95(8), 23-27.
Phan, H. P. (2014). An integrated framework involving enactive learning experiences, mastery goals, and academic engagement-disengagement. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 41-66.
Pishghadam, R., Derakhshan, A., & Zhaleh, K. (2019). The interplay of teacher success, credibility, and stroke with respect to EFL students’ willingness to attend classes. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 50(4), 284-292.
Pishghadam, R., Seyednozadi, Z., & Zabetipour, M. (2017). Examining teacher credibility and language achievement in light of emotionalization and life syllabus. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 12(2), 117-131.
Pogue, L. L., & Ahyun, K. (2006). The effect of teacher nonverbal immediacy and credibility on student motivation and affective learning. Communication Education, 55(3), 331-344.
Quin, D. (2017). Longitudinal and contextual associations between teacher–student relationships and student engagement: A systematic review. Review of Educational Research, 87(2), 345-387.
Qureshi, A., Wall, H., Humphries, J., & Balani, A. B. (2016). Can personality traits modulate student engagement with learning and their attitude to employability?. Learning and Individual Differences, 51(1), 349-358.
Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., & Hickson, M. (2008). Nonverbal behavior in interpersonal relations. Allyn & Bacon.
Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M., Spilt, J. L., &Oort, F. J. (2011). The influence of affective teacher–student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493-529.
Salmela‐Aro, K., & Upadyaya, K. (2014). School burnout and engagement in the context of demands–resources model. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(1), 137-151.
Santilli, V., Miller, A. N., & Katt, J. (2011). A comparison of the relationship between instructor nonverbal immediacy and teacher credibility in Brazilian and U.S. classrooms. Communication Research Reports, 28(3), 266-274.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92.
Sheybani, M. (2019). The relationship between EFL Learners’ willingness to communicate (WTC) and their teacher immediacy attributes: A structural equation modelling. Cogent Psychology, 6(1), 1-14.
Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., & Furrer, C. J. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children's behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(3), 493-525.
Thomas, C. E., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (1994). The association between immediacy and socio‐communicative style. Communication Research Reports, 11(1), 107-114.
Trad, L., Katt, J., & Neville Miller, A. (2014). The effect of face threat mitigation on instructor credibility and student motivation in the absence of instructor nonverbal immediacy. Communication Education, 63(2), 136-148.
Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts: A review of empirical research. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136-147.
Van Uden, J. M., Ritzen, H., & Pieters, J. M. (2014). Engaging students: The role of teacher beliefs and interpersonal teacher behavior in fostering student engagement in vocational education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 37(1), 21-32.
Violanti, M. T., Kelly, S. E., Garland, M. E., & Christen, S. (2018). Instructor clarity, humor, immediacy, and student learning: Replication and extension. Communication Studies, 69(3), 251-262.
Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877-895.
Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28(1), 12-23.
Wang, M. T., & Fredricks, J. A. (2014). The reciprocal links between school engagement, youth problem behaviors, and school dropout during adolescence. Child Development, 85(2), 722-737.
Witt, P. L., Wheeless, L. R., & Allen, M. (2004). A meta‐analytical review of the relationship between teacher immediacy and student learning. Communication Monographs, 71(2), 184-207.
York, D. (2013). Investigating a relationship between nonverbal communication and student learning (Doctoral Dissertation). Lindenwood University, Saint Charles, Missouri.