نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 نویسندۀ مسئول، دانشجوی دکتری آموزش زبان فارسی به غیر فارسیزبانان، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی(ره)
2 استاد گروه زبانشناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی(ره)
عنوان مقاله [English]
In the flipped class, unlike in the traditional class, new information and instruction are given at home, and homework is done in class; In flipped learning, direct instruction is transferred from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and as a result, the group space in the classroom becomes a dynamic and interactive learning environment, and the teacher, Instead of presenting lessons, along with language learners, guides them to apply concepts and interact creatively with the subject matter; and learners are also involved in the active learning process. Among the theories of secondary language learning, the skill acquisition theory is a purely psychological theory that is rooted in three types of behavioral, cognitive and relational psychology. This theory is not specific to language acquisition but is commonly used to explain the acquisition of a variety of skills. This research is a qualitative and practical action research type. The purpose of this study is to investigate how to implement a filipped approach to language teaching; For this purpose, among the theories of secondary language acquisition, the skill acquisition theory has been considered. Therefore, in this study, by reviewing the literature and theoretical foundations of the flipped approach and the framework of the skill acquisition theory, the alignment of these two approaches in the implementation of flipped Persian language teaching to intermediate Arabic speakers as a lived experience has been expressed. Findings showed that the format of skill acquisition theory is suitable for implementing the flipped approach in language teaching.
Today, with the advancement of technology and its popularity among the majority of language learners, the need to synchronize processes of language teaching and learning/acquisition with this progress has become more important. The widespread use of technology has become an integral part of the life of individuals (language learners), so providing technology-compatible language teaching materials encourages language learners to make optimal use of these teaching materials. Flipped approach is one of the new educational approaches that tries to employ technology in training and meet this need by optimally managing time and using active learning methods. This approach is often used in the format of two terms: flipped class and flipped learning. In the flipped class, student receive new information and training at home and homework is done in class. Additionally, in flipped learning, direct learning is transferred from the group learning space to the personal (/private) learning space; as a result, the group space becomes a dynamic and interactive learning environment, where the teacher guides language learners to apply concepts and interact creatively with the educational subject.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how to implement a flipped approach to language teaching. For this purpose, from the theories of Second Language Acquisition, considering the properties of the flipped approach, it seems that the Skill Acquistion theory is a good framework for implementing such an approach in the second language acquistion. Therefore, in this research, we have implemented flipped approach in the framework of skill acquisition theory to teach Persian to speakers of other languages and explained in detail how it was implemented and the results as an experience.
This research is a qualitative and practical action research type. So, the flipped implementation of teaching Persian language for intermediate Arab learners was planned virtually in May 2020. The course was designed as a four-skill course with more emphasis on reading skill. The classes were virtual, online and simultaneously on the Skyroom platform, three sessions per week (in three days) and each session was an hour and a half. To accurately record the implementation process, two types of portfolios were created: Teacher portfolio and language learner portfolio. In the Teacher Portfolio, a folder was created for each lesson to store and categorize the educational contents which were produced by the teacher. For each lesson, a pre-study file, a supplementary lesson presentation file, a homework file and the relevant audio and video files have been prepared and saved. Also, the teacher’s teaching method was recorded in each session for saving in the teacher's portfolio for future lesson analysis research. In addition, all teaching techniques and activities were recorded in the teacher's portfolio. For this course in the Edmodo platform, a backup system was designed at https://edmo.do/j/zkswyw with the login code "ciswyy". All language learners became members of this system with the help of the teacher, and each session, in addition to the files shared in WhatsApp application, they were simultaneously uploaded to Edmodo system.
Assessment of learners' performance in the course was considered as a combination of formative and summative assessment. 40% of each learner's assessment was dedicated to their formative assessment and 60% of it was allocated to the final (/summative) assessment. At the end of the course, it was tried to adapt the final assessment to the conditions of the course and the characteristics of the flipped approach. The test was held in virtual form. Before the testing day, a file titled "Test Process" was shared in the WhatsApp group and backup system. The testing procedure was fully explained in that file so that no ambiguity remains for language learners.
Findings of this study mentioned that due to the popularity of technology and the increasing use of learners in virtual and online environments and the compatibility of the flipped approach with this development, this approach is easily implemented and applicable, and in most cases was found pleasurable by language learners. Evidence from the course (class participation and pre-study and assignments) suggests that learners were more involved with the content during the implementation of this approach. In general, the benefits of flipped execution of this course can be listed as follows:
Good interaction between teacher and learner.
Appropriate and real-time feedback (both before and in class).
Personalized and differentiated training of learners according to their needs.
Transparency of the learning process and the participation of language learners in it and holding them accountable in this process.
Keeping learners in sync with the assessment plan and their good participation in the assessment process.
Appropriate output of learners' learning experience in the format of a portfolio.
Complete the learning cycle and achieve deep learning.
Very valuable experience for the teacher.
By implementing the flipped approach in the framework of skill acquisition theory, the three stages a) contact and understanding of knowledge, b) acquisition and relative mastery, and c) deterministic mastery can be well implemented. In the deterministic mastery stage, the learner, with the support and experience that was gained from using language in the flipped classroom environment, can easily use the language in the authentic situations and achieve deterministic mastery. It seems that the learning cycle in the flipped approach can be considered as preparation <-> application <-> group discussion that is easily adapted to the first and second stages of the three stages of skill acquisition. On the other hand, by using the flipped approach to language teaching with participation activities in group discussion, practicing by doing and teaching others in the flipped classroom provides active learning conditions for language learners; moreover, according to Edgar Dale’s cone of experience, the lifespan rate of this type of learning grows to 90%.
According to the researchers of this study, in the flipped implementation of the course, the implementation of the flipped approach in virtual had deprived us from some facilities and opportunities of this approach that can be best implemented in the classroom; however, a significant part of the objectives of each lesson and the goals of the course, which was to teach Persian language in a four-skill manner with a focus on reading skill as well as improving the level of language skills of learners, was achieved.